Just Transition Framework for a Sustainable Future in India’s Coal Mining Regions

13 Feb 2024
Dr. Jayanta Mitra
Ms. Apoorva Singh
Ms. Arpita Victor

As India's energy mix diversifies, there is increasing attention on achieving a fair and equitable transition that considers the impacts on workers, communities, the environment, and related industries. To address this, TERI has developed a Just Transition Framework, informed by extensive research in India's eastern coal-belt and engagement with diverse stakeholders.

Grounded in theories of procedural, distributive, and restorative justice, the framework aims to facilitate a structured transformation to address concerns in regions affected by coal mine closures. It proposes a two-pronged approach involving institutional changes at various levels of governance and targeted interventions focusing on consensus-building, socio-economic transformation, and environmentally friendly development.


Each aspect of the framework aligns with principles of justice and is supported by specific interventions tailored to different governance levels. The framework also includes a comprehensive mapping of stakeholders, challenges, risks, and indicators for change, providing a detailed understanding of just transition dynamics at the grassroots level and a monitoring mechanism. Case studies from global regions undergoing coal mining reforms are used to illustrate each focus area, and the report outlines a phased plan aligning interventions at national, state, and district levels toward India's net-zero emissions target by 2070.

Energy transitions
Coal mining