Low Carbon Development Pathways for Cooling: Leveraging Kigali Amendment Across Residential Applications

Dhawan Vibha , Shah Nihar , Dreyfus Gabrielle , Zaelke Durwood , Osho Zerin , Murphy Amelia , Seth Sanjay

Heating and cooling demand for space conditioning and refrigeration accounts for around a fifth of global final energy consumption. Climate change, urbanisation, and economic development have tripled electricity demand for cooling alone since the 1990s, with the majority coming from the use of inefficient cooling equipment, which burdens electricity grids, especially during the peak hours. It is imperative to address the energy required to provide cooling. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol addresses these needs by setting ambitious global targets to phase down refrigerants with high global warming potential, while improving energy efficiency. Integrating energy efficiency and the refrigerant transition will contribute to economic security, well-being, energy access and security, and sustainability among the G20 countries.

Low Carbon
Energy efficiency
Global warming
Climate change