The Evaluation of Two-stage Chemical Fractionation for the Enhanced Enzymatic Saccharification of Cellulose in Rice Straw
Banerji A, Kurian J, Kishore V V N and Balakrishnan M
Rice straw, an agro-residue, can be utilized as a renewable resource for the production of fuel and chemicals. This study evaluates a two-stage chemical pretreatment (dilute acid hydrolysis followed by alkaline-peroxide delignification) for fractionation and enhancing the enzymatic saccharification of the rice straw cellulose to produce fermentable sugars. The process led to 100% hemicellulose dissolution and resulted in a solid residue with ~95% pure cellulose. Enzymatic saccharification of this cellulose liberates 70% more reducing sugars compared to other single-step pretreatment methods.
Test of Airflow in a Mono-directional Wind-catcher for various Wind Conditions using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Devadutt S, Habeeb R
Wind-catchers are one of the most extensively used passive technologies in history of arid climatic regions, engaged to supplement airflow and maintain indoor comfort ventilation. It was meant to catch the air flow high above the ground, which is greater in speed compared to the flow at lower levels due to ground conditions. This study aims to analyse wind-catchers with respect to different speeds and its orientation to prevailing winds for effective airflow.
The demand for increased food production and ecological threats for sustainable food production in years to come has resulted in relooking at the current agricultural practices. Globally, scientists are developing solutions for increasing crop productivity and developing nutritionally better crops that are more efficient in resource utilization. The challenge is not just restricted to more mouths to feed but also due to economic growth, the demand for food is increasing and so are the preferences for the kind of food.
Subramanian S, Pande G, Weireldd G D, Giraudona J M, Jean-Francois Lamonier, Batra V S
Sugarcane is an important industrial crop in India and the by-product bagasse is used as a fuel in sugar industries generating large quantities of fly ash. Unburned carbon from waste bagasse fly ash was used to prepare porous carbon for use as adsorbent and catalyst support for VOC removal. The carbons were prepared by steam activation and phosphoric acid modification. The textual properties, thermal stability and surface chemistry were characterized in detail using different techniques and the prepared samples from industrial unburned carbon were tested for toluene adsorption.
South Asia accounts for 37% of the world's population without access to electricity. Such a situation continues to exist despite several initiatives and policies to support rural electrification efforts by the respective country governments including use of renewable energy technologies. While conventional grid extension has been the predominant mode of electrification in the region, the countries have also extensively used solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for energy access.
Response to discussion on: "An integrated statistical approach for evaluating the exceedance of criteria pollutants in the ambient air of megacity Delhi", Atmospheric Environment
Pragati Sharma, Prateek Sharma, Jain S, Kumar P
Like many countries, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, in India evaluates exceedences of air pollution levels against the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). One of the mandatory requirements for NAAQS compliance is that the probability of non-exceedence should be at least 0.98, meaning that the formulated framework of NAAQS is essentially statistical.
Response surface optimization of poly (3-hydroxyalkanoic acid) production using oleic acid as an alternative carbon source by seudomonas aeruginosa
Dalala J, Sarmab P M, Mandalb A K, Lal B
This study aims at optimizing medium-chain-length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (MCL-PHA) production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 13003 culture using the statistical design techniques of 2-level factorial design and RSM. Two-level factorial design with eight variables viz. oleic acid, (NH4)2POM4, incubation time, trace metal solution, MgCl2, K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and inoculum was performed to screen for nutrients that were significantly affecting MCL-PHA production.
Kannan D C, Pattarkine V M
One of the crucial steps in generating biofuel from algae is the separation and recovery of lipids from algal biomass. These lipids are eventually converted into liquid biofuel after processing and refining. This chapter presents an overview of extraction techniques and some of the challenges in applying these techniques to industrial-scale algal biofuel production. Lipids are well-encased inside algal cell walls. The aqueous environment of the cells makes it even more difficult to extract the lipids. Hexane extraction is presently the most economical method.
Reconstruction and visualization of carbohydrate, N-glycosylation pathways in Pichia pastoris CBS7435 using computational and system biology approaches
Srivastava A, Somvanshi P, Mishra B N
Pichia pastoris is an efficient expression system for production of recombinant proteins. To understand its physiology for building novel applications it is important to understand and reconstruct its metabolic network. The metabolic reconstruction approach connects genotype with phenotype. Here, we have attempted to reconstruct carbohydrate metabolism pathways responsible for high biomass density and N-glycosylation pathways involved in the post translational modification of proteins of P. pastoris CBS7435.
Pandey S, Hooda R, Mishra A
The mercury-bearing lamps, towards the end-of-life, pose significant hazard potential due to the likely release of mercury. Though, these fluorescent lamps (FLs) release relatively less quantity of mercury when disposed as compared to other mercury-based products, they are still a concern due to the large and further growing number of FLs in service, particularly, in the domestic sector and their fragile nature.